Thursday, July 25, 2024

The Other Panglong agreements

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Aside from the well knows 12 February 1947 agreement between Ministerial Burma and the Federated Shan States-Kachin Hills-Chin Hills, 3 other agreements are well worth studying, as they had served as forerunners to it. Putting them together, a fuller picture of the making of the Union in 1947 may emerge in the reader’ mind, helping him/her to understand how it was formed and how it should be formed to make it last.


  1. Aung San – Atlee Agreement

Telegram No. 1599 FA frontiers to resident. NSS

The agreement stipulates that the Frontier Areas peoples, as the non-Burmans were then known, should be taken into account in order to forge a future unified Burma.

Joseph Silverstein interprets it as “the condition the minorities would be free to decide whether or not to advance with Burma (Proper)” — Editor

Following conclusion reached in conversation between His Majesty’s Government and Delegation from Executive Council at London regarding Frontier Areas.

It is agreed objective of both His Majesty’s Government and the Burmese Delegates to achieve the early unification of the Frontier Areas and Ministerial Burma with the free consent of inhabitants of those Areas.

In meantime it is agreed that people of Frontier Areas should in respect of subjects of common interest be closely associated with Government of Burma in a manner acceptable to both parties.

For these purposes it has been agreed as follows:-

(a) There shall be free intercourse between peoples of Frontier Areas and peoples of Ministerial Burma without hindrance.

(b) Leaders and representatives of people of Frontier Areas shall be asked either at Panglong Conference or at a special conference to be convened for the purpose to express their views upon the form of association with the Government of Burma which they consider acceptable during the transition period whether by


  1. Appointment of a small group of Frontier representatives to advise the Governor on Frontier affairs and to have close liaison with the Executive Council (or)
  2. By appointment of one Frontier Areas Representative as Executive Council of or charge of Frontier affairs (or)
  3. By some other method.

(c) After the Panglong Conference or Special Conference, HMG and the Government of Burma will agree up the best method of advancing their common aims in accordance with the expressed views of the peoples of the Frontier Areas.

(d) A committee of Enquiry shall be set up forthwith as to the best method of associating the Frontier peoples with the working out the New Constitution for Burma.

Such Committee will consist of equal number of persons from Ministerial Burma nominated by the Executive Council and of persons from the Frontier Areas nominated by the Governor after consultation with leaders of those areas with a neutral Chairman from outside Burma selected by agreement.

Such Committee shall be asked to report to Government of Burma and HMG before the summoning of the Constitution Assembly.


  1. Shan-Kachin Agreement

Decision arrive at by the Shan-Kachin committee at its meeting

At Panglong on 6th. February 1947 at 2:30 p.m.

That the non-Burmans were not calling for self-rule, which they already enjoyed, but also what is known as “shared rule” can be seen here — Editor

The Committee is of the opinion that the freedom for the Shan and the Kachins would be achieved sooner through the cooperation with Burmese as such the two races would send in their respective Representative to take part in the Executive Council of the Burma Government during the transition period, with the following conditions:

  1. Same status, right and privileges as enjoyed by the Burmese on democratic lines.
  2. The Shan and Kachin members in the Executive Council would be responsible for all their respective internal affairs and would jointly be responsible for common subjects e.g. Defence, Foreign affairs, Railway Customs etc.
  3. This Committee supported the demand of the Kachin for their desire to have distinct separate Kachin State.
  4. The terms of agreement as arrived at between the Burmese delegates and His Majesty’s Government is not to be binding on the Shan and Kachins.
  5. The right to secede after attainment of freedom from Confederation with Burma if and when we choose.


Shan CommitteeKachin Committee
sd. Hkun Pan Sing, Saopalong of Tawngpeng Sinwa Naw, Myitkyina.
sd. S.S. Thaike, Saohpalong of Yawnghwe Zau Rip,         -do-
sd. Sao Hom Hpa, Saohpalong of North Hsenwi Dinra Tang,   -do-
sd. Sao Num, Saohpalong of Lainka Zau La, Bhamo.
sd. Sao Sam Htun, Saohpalong of Mong Pawn Zau Lawn,     -do-
sd. Sao Htun E, Saohpalong of Hsamongnkam Statesd. Labang Grong, Bhamo.
sd. Hkun Phung.
sd. Tin E.
sd. Htun Myint.
sd. Kya Bu.
sd. Nkun Saw.
sd. Sao Yape Hpa.
sd. Hkun Htee.


  1. Shan-Kachin-Chin Agreement

Decision arrived at by the combined Chin-Kachin-Shan

Committee at its meeting at Panglong on 7th February 1947 at 9 A.M.

Aung San’s famous “Burmese one kyat, Shan (Kachin /Chin etc) one kyat” is worded in another way here — Editor

The Chin delegation having arrived on the night of the 6th. February 1947 was welcomed to the meeting. It consisted of

  1. U Hlur Hmung, ATM, I, D, S, M., Falam, Chin Hills
  2. U Thawng Za Khup, ATM, Tiddim, Chin Hills
  3. U Kio Mang, ATM, Haka, Chin Hills


  1. The terms of the decision arrived at yesterday by the Shan Representatives and the Kachin Delegations at their Meeting at 2:30 P.M. was duly read out and explained to the Chin Delegates who approved of the decisions and subscribed to the same with the following which was unanimously approved by all.

(a) All Rights and privileges as regards Central Revenue enjoyed by Shans shall also be extended to the Chins and Kachins on a population basis.

(b) Any deficiency in local finance to be made good from Burma Revenues.

(c) There shall be formed a Supreme Executive Council of the United Hill Peoples composed of representative of Shans, Chins and Kachins which shall have full power of decision on all matters of policy between the Hill peoples and the Government of Burma.


Shan Committee

Kachin Committee

sd. Hkun Pan Sing, Saopalong of Tawngpeng Sinwa Naw, Myitkyina.
sd. S.S. Thaike, Saohpalong of Yawnghwe Zau Rip,         -do-
sd. Sao Hom Hpa, Saohpalong of North Hsenwi Dinra Tang,   -do-
sd. Sao Num, Saohpalong of Laihka Zau La, Bhamo.
sd. Sao Sam Htun, Saohpalong of Mong Pawn Zau Lawn,     -do-
sd. Sao Htun E, Saohpalong of Hsamonghkam Statesd. Labang Grong, Bhamo.
sd. Mg Pyu, Representative of Hsahtung Saohpolong
sd. Hkun Phung.

Chin Committee

sd. Tin Hlur Hmung, ATM, IDSM, B.E.I., Falam
sd. Htun Thawng Za Khup, ATM, Tiddim.
sd. Kya Kic Mang, ATM, Haka.
sd. Hkun Saw.
sd. Sao Yape Hpa.
sd. Hkun Htee.


  1. Agreement for First Non-Burman Negotiating Team

The alliance, its name pronounced “Scoop”, was formed to negotiate with the Government of Ministerial Burma by Shan, Kachin and Chin leaders on the same day — Editor

At the meeting of the Chin-Shan-Kachin Committee at Panglong on 7th February 1947 at 1 p.m., it was unanimously resolved that a Sub-Committee of the under-listed members be formed and given full powers for the purpose of negotiating with the Burmese Leaders according to the terms of the decisions of the 6th an 7th February 1947 arrived at by (a) the Kachin-Shan Committee and (b) the Combined Chin-Shan-Kachin Committee: —

  1. U Kya Bu
  2. Saohpalong of Mongpawn State
  3. Sin Wa Naw
  4. Zau Lawn
  5. U Hlur Hmung
  6. U Thawng Za Khup


sd. Hkun Pan Sing


Combined Chin-Shan-Kachin Committee


Dated Panglong, the 7th February 1947.

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